Metric Billiard table
Billiards & Snooker goes Metric by Norman Clare
Published in April 1970 edition of Billiards & Snooker
(Note where Norman mentions Billiard tables this
encompasses Snooker Tables as well. Snooker was a game invented to be
played on a Billiard table. Additional information putting this
1970 article into context and with rule book information is added
at the end of the article)
We already know our British Sterling Currency is to be
based on the decimal system from February 1971.
In the not very distant future we have also been warned
that we are to adopt the metric system of measurements. Thus we
shall purchase our potatoes by the kilogram instead of the pound
and measure our distances by kilometre instead of a mile.
To some extent the metric revolution in The United Kingdom
has already commenced.
This being so, the Billiard Association and Control
Council(see note 1), which is the World governing body for the
games of U.K. Billiards and Snooker, must soon give very careful
consideration to to restating those rules which specify
measurements of "UK Billiard Tables".
If, as a Nation, we are to derive the maximum advantage
from changing to the metric system, it is in my opinion, important
that we do not just convert our existing Imperial Measurements
directly into the metric system, as to do so will result in
measurements running into four decimal places. This would be
extremely difficult to remember and certainly difficult for a
referee to check if they decided to do so.
Ideally, we should if possible specify measurements based
on the multiples 5 and 10. It would be an easy matter to adopt new
measurements which varied slightly from the old if the article with
which we were concerned had a serviceable life of something like 10
years. Articles made to the old specification would soon be worn
out and replaced by those in the new metric sizes. However as this
is not the case with Billiard tables we are faced with a really
difficult problem; one which will not be made any easier when one
remembers how extremely conservative the average U.K. person really
In the specification of a Billiard table, as published in
the B.A & C.C. Rules, there are in fact only two official sizes
of billiard table; the 12ft Standard table with a slate bed
measuring 12ft long x 6ft 1 ½ inches wide and a B.A. & C.C. 6
ft. table with a slate bed 6ft. Long x 3ft 1 ½ ins. wide.(see note
Thus all the other many 'undersize' tables which exist are
quite 'unofficial'. Furthermore, although the 6ft standard table
has been specified in the rules for many years , only an extremely
small percentage of existing 6ft tables conform to the official
measurements. In view of this I would suggest that Rule No.
1Aspecifying the size of a standard 6ft. Table is simply eliminated
from the rule book. This would not result in any problems at all,
as there are no official Championships played on the standard
As far as the 12ft Standard (full size) Billiard table is
concerned, the size of the pocket openings require no alteration as
the rules simply specify that"the pocket openings shall conform to
the templates authorised by the B.A. & C.C."
The balls do not present any tremendous difficulty. The
existing rules state that the balls shall have a diameter of 2 1/16
inches , "within manufacturers tolerances" (what ever that means!)
and that they shall be of equal size and weight. A straight direct
conversion is probably the best answer. This would result in a ball
size being specified as being 52.3875mm (52.5mm)
We cannot very easily achieve the multiple of 5 or 10 as
this would result in either a 50mm. which is fractionally less that
2 inches or 55mm which is almost 2 3/16 inches. Any other decision,
such as increasing the size of the ball in order that we might come
closer to the American size of 2 ¼ inches diameter, in order to
facilitate International Snooker competitions, would result in
almost every existing Billiard table requiring major modifications
to the cushions. Indeed, completely new cushions would be required
as the height of the cushion nose above the playing surface of the
table would need to be considerably increased.
The only other accessory which has a specified measurement
is a cue, which to conform with rule 2A must not be less than 3ft.
Long It really would not do any harm at all if this rule was
altered so that the minimum length of 1 meter was specified. The
actual result of so doing would be to increase the minimum length
by approximately 3 ½ inches but apart from one exciting occasion
many years ago before the minimum length of cue was specified in
the rules, when Alec Brown used a cue only a few inches long to
play a stoke. I think it is safe to say that nobody would be at all
worried if the minimum length was specified at 1 meter.
Let us now list those measurements which refer to the
table itself - followed by direct metric conversions in
The bed of the table must measure 12ft long x 6ft 1 ½ ins
wide (365.76cms x 186.69cms).
The edge of the cushion shall project over the edge of the
slate bed not less that 1 ½ ins or more than 2 ins.(not less than
3.81cms or more than 5.08cms)
The height of the Billiard Table from the floor to the top
of the cushion rail shall be not less than 2ft 9 ½ ins. nor more
than 2ft 10 ½ ins. (not less than 85.09 cm, nor more than
The baulk line 29ins. From the face of the bottom cushion
The spot 12 ¾ ins. Below the face of the top cushion
Clearly the above measurements, when converted directly
into metric measurements resulting figures which require "rounding
off" and so now at last we arrive at the point where real
Before we get too deeply involved I think we should
immediately recognise that the job has to be tackled sensibly.
Clearly the many thousands of existing tables will have to be
accepted as they now stand so far as their "construction" is
concerned but it should be possible to rationalise the baulk line
and spot positions gradually over a relatively short period of
time. During this period either the old or the new rationalised
measurements wood need to be accepted without the table being
Before anybody should immediately take me to task for such a
suggestion, may I point out that there is already a tolerance in
the rules, which permits the cushion to project over the edge of
the table(slate)bed not less than 1 ½ ins and not more than 2
Taking note of this tolerance at both sides and both ends
of the tabble, we already have a situation where you can have a
difference in length of the playing surface of up to 1 inch
(2.54cm)and also in the width of the playing surface of up to 1
inch (2.54cm) without either table contravening the rules. We have
lived with this tolerance for as many years as I can remember. Thus
I submit some tolerance in the baulk and spot positions might be
accepted whilst we fall in line with the nearest and most
convenient metric measurements. Indecently it would be interesting
to try and find out how the spot position ever came to be specified
as 12 ¾ inches, why not 13 inches or perhaps even the convenient
measurement of one foot?No doubt at some time in the past, there
must have been many heated arguments about this particular
measurement and it seems to be that there must have been some
degree of compromise. Otherwise how else could such and
inconvenient measurement been selected?
Now I come to my most controversial suggestion. Whilst
changes in rules are being introduced to accomodate metric
measurements, I think the opportunity should be taken of specifying
the actual length and width of the playing area taking the
measurements from the face of the cushion instead of specifying the
length and the width of the table(slate)bed, followed by the
permitted variations in the projection of the cushion over the edge
of the(slate)bed. Such changes would give the Billiard table maker
more latitude in the design and construction, and method of fixing
the cushion rails. Dare I suggest that the length of the playing
surface should be 3.5 meters(3.5 meters equals approximately 11ft
6ins) by 1.75 meters wide (1.75mts equals approximately 5ft 9 ins)
and bearing in mind that the majority of existing Billiard tables
have cushions which project the maximum 2 inches over the edge of
the slate bed, the existing playing surface measuring within the
face of the cushions measures 11ft 8ins by 5ft 9 ½ inches.
Thus my suggested metric full size Billiard tables would
have a playing area in width just about ½ inch narrower than the
existing and 2 inches shorter. The great advantage would be that
the width would be exactly half the length so each half of the
Billiard table would be an exact square.
Both the old table made to the imperial measurements and
the new table made to the Metric measurements would have to be
accepted as standard full size tables for all purposes for a very
long time into the future.
I do not think that the relatively small differences
between the two sizes would be noticed by the vast majority of
players and as there is already an existing tolerance of 1 inch in
both the length and width, I think we could accept the necessary
tolerances in order that we can "go metric".
In my opinion we cannot just ignore the problem and hope
it will disappear. I am very well aware that the Billiard table,
once manufactured, last for 100 years or more and so it is thus
very easy to make excuses for not doing anything about the problem
now. But, any activity which does not move with the times to keep
itself up to date will ultimately die and so those of us today who
have some responsibility in these matters must not allow the
situation to go be default.
Notes & additional information :-
(1) The Billiard Association & Control Council changed
its title to the Billiard & Snooker Control Council sometime
between 1970 and 1974. Perhaps the name change was influnced by the
BBC 'Pot Black' programs which commenced in 1969 and brought the
game of Snooker to a wider global audience.
(2) The B.& S.C.C. rule books upto 1977 only had the
'Imperial Standard table' measurments. It should be noted that when
the original specifications table were drawn up the cushion nose
projection was 1 ½ inches which meant that the playing area
(between the cushion noses) was 11ft 6ins. by 5ft 10 ½ inches.
Which meant that each half of the playing area was an exact square.
Which is also true for American Pool tables and European Carom
Tables and what Norman achieved with his suggested Metric
conversion. However when the 2 inch cushion nose projection was
allowed this destroyed that geometric shape on Uk Billiard tables.
Norman was therefore trying to correct this anomaly with his metric
suggestion. Just in passing the 2 inch cushion nose projection was
probably adopted as it "improved" the appearance of the cushion by
giving the impression of more cushion rubber being used!!
(3) The 1978 B.& S.C.C. Rule book has both Imperial
& metric StandardTables. Susquently even the Imperial
measurements were based on the playing area rather than the slate
size. This was stated as 11ft 8 ½ inches long by 10ft 5 inches wide
with a tolerance of +/- ½ inch.
Playing Area specified in
Imperial measurements in the 1984 B.& S.C.C.rules
So from the above entries it seems that some time between 1978
and 1984 the B.& S.C.C. Revised the imperial specification so
that the playing area was stipulated rathe than the slate bed and
cushion nose projection. The last rule book that we have in the
collection that list the "Standard Metric" table is a WPBSA 1993
The major table makers in the mid 1970 did start to make
their full size tables to the metric specification but as the
1980's were the time when numerous Snooker halls were opened new
table makers were not aware of the "Rules" and just copied existing
'old' tables. Thus the metric tables were swamped by the numerous
other makers and basically are no longer made. However quite a
number ofmetric tablesare in play and as Norman mentioned in his
article that tables will be around for a long number of years so
must still be considered as "Standerd Full Size Tables"!!
© Norman Clare 1990. © E.A.
Clare & Son Ltd. 2018. © Peter N. Clare 2018
Reproduction of this article allowed only with the permission from
E.A. Clare & Son Ltd.